Believable is the definition of credible. Middle school students learn how to become credible writers.
“Modern Language Association style guide is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities” (Purdue University). Our students format research papers, in-text citations, and Works Cited page entries using MLA format. They create several mini-research reports throughout the year.
8th Grade students celebrated International Women’s Day on March 8, 2017 by learning about women who have significantly changed our world but have not received the same recognition as others.
Do you know who Virginia Apgar is? Ryan Cain did not know either; read his research report to find out how Apgar impacted medicine.
8 March 2017
The Painless Doctor
The bright white light shone through the room. The baby is born. Doctors rush around the room to find medical supplies to ensure a healthy mother and baby. Doctors use the Apgar Score to tell if the baby is healthy; the baby got a high score and is healthy. The mother is in tears of joy because she just had her first baby.
Virginia Apgar was a doctor that had discovered many new things in the medical field; namely, things that happen in the birth room. She was motivated to become a doctor and she did become one; through many hardships and discoveries, Virginia Apgar changed the medical field in many positive ways.
Virginia Apgar was born on June 7, 1909. She was born in Westfield, New Jersey. “Virginia Apgar grew up in a creative household. She played violin and cello, and spent time doing experiments with her science-loving dad” (Schatz). She was inspired to become a doctor after her brother died of tuberculosis, and her other brother suffered from chronic illnesses (Schatz). She always said, “Nobody, but nobody, is going to stop breathing on me!” In 1929, Apgar acquired her AB from Mount Holyoke, and she started her medical training at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons (U.S. National Library of Medicine). First, Virginia wanted to be a surgeon. Next, she struggled to find work even though she graduated medical school and was at the top of her class. Then, Virginia had the idea to transfer to a new medical field called anesthesiology. Finally, she was able to find a job in the anesthesiology field. Anesthesiologists administer anesthetics to patients to numb their pain during surgery (Schatz).
She finished her MD in 1933 and started a surgical internship at Presbyterian Hospital. Anesthesiology was beginning to become a medical specialty rather than a nursing specialty; Apgar understood this and trained for a year at Presbyterian’s nurse-anesthetist program (U.S. National Library of Medicine). In 1938, she went back to Presbyterian Hospital as the director of the Division of Anesthesia that was in the Department of Surgery. Apgar was the first female to lead a division at Presbyterian Hospital. As a division leader, she was supposed to do multiple things. Virginia was responsible for organizing anesthesia work and research at the hospital, teaching medical students who went through the anesthesia department, and the recruitment and training of anesthesiology students. Leading the Department of Anesthesia was a hard task. Apgar, for the next 11 years, transformed the anesthesia service at Presbyterian into one with physicians instead of nurses. She created the anesthesiology education program at Presbyterian Hospital (U.S. National Library of Medicine). She emphasized the anesthetic department through her works.
Apgar pondered on maternal anesthesia and birth defects. By 1952, she developed the Apgar Score — one of the most famous things she is known for. The Apgar Score is an evaluation doctors can use on newborns to determine their health. This procedure is simple, it is adding the rating of different health subjects together; smart, it’s a very helpful innovation to the medical field; and accurate, doctors are able to determine the health of a newborn one minute after birth. She labored hard to save the lives of newborns. She was the main worker bee in the hive. Virginia was extremely devoted to her work; for example, she witnessed over 17,000 births by the late 1950’s.
Did Virginia Apgar do more than this? It is hard to believe but yes! I was in awe when I first read about her. The article “The Virginia Apgar Papers: Biographical Information” has a lot more information on her. She was even elected Woman of the Year in Science by Ladies Home Journal in 1973. I felt inspired after reading about her. I can accomplish a lot through hard work. That is what I learned. She was like a horse coming out of the gate. As soon as she finished school, she came out restless and ready to begin what she wanted to do. Having a bountiful and sound stature, she was ready for anything. The wheels in her head turned and churned as she did the amazing work she is known for now. All in all, she was an amazing woman and has really changed the doctor’s office we have today.
Schatz, Kate. Rad American Women A-Z. San Francisco: City Lights, 2015. Print.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health, n.d. Web. 10 Mar.